Parts of a seed


The seed coat. A protective layer which is tough and hard and protects the seed from attack by insects, fungi and bacteria.


  • Monocotyledons have 1 cotyledon
  • Dicotyledons have 2 cotyledons

A cotyledon is an embryonic leaf. It is the first leaf to appear when a seedling grows. They often contain reserves of food which the developing seedling can use to grow.


The section of stem between the cotyledon(s) and the plumule. In a seedling it is the section of stem between the cotyledons and the first true leaves.


The section of stem below the cotyledon(s) and above the radicle, or root in a seedling.


The first part of the embryo to emerge when a seed germinates, it becomes the root.


The embryonic growing shoot and first leaves of a plant. This is the part of the plant that grows above the cotyledon(s) when the seedling develops.


The scar where the seed was attached to the parent plant.


The food store made up of protein and starch which feeds the developing seedling before it is able to uptake water and nutrients through its own roots.


This is a tiny pore in the testa located just opposite the radicle which lets water into the seed.


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